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רוּחַ 378 noun feminineGenesis 41:8 (less often masculineExodus 10:13 +) breath, wind, spirit; — absolute ר׳ Genesis 8:1 +, ר֑וּחָה Jeremiah 52:23; construct רוּחַ Genesis 6:17 +; suffix רוּחִי Genesis 6:3 +, רוּחֲךָ Psalm 104:30 +, etc.; plural רוּחוֺת Psalm 104:4 +, רֻחוֺת Jeremiah 49:36, רוּחֹת Numbers 16:22; Numbers 26:16 (see Brרוח in O.T., JBL xix (1900), 132 ff., full statement of all passages); —

†1. breath of mouth or nostrils (33 times):

b. as mere breath: compare 2e. דִּבְרֵירֿוּחַ Job 16:3 i.e. windy words; נוֺאָשׁ לְרוּחַ אִמְרֵי Job 6:26, הַנְּבִיאִים יִהְיוּ לְרוּחַ Jeremiah 5:13.

c. as word of command:

(1) of God: כָּל־ פִּיו בְּרוּחַ (נעשׂו) צְבָאָם Psalm 33:6, compare Isaiah 34:16 (|| פֶּה); (2) of Messianic king: בְּרוּחַ שְׂפָתָיו יָמִית רָשָׁע Isaiah 11:4.

d. as hard breathing through the nostrils in anger:

2. wind (117 times):

a. wind of heaven: Genesis 8:1 (P) Exodus 15:10 (E) Numbers 11:31 (J) 1 Kings 18:45 +, Jeremiah 10:13, thence Jeremiah 51:16; Psalm 135:7; רוּחַ י׳ Hosea 13:15; Isaiah 40:7, compare Job 26:13 (Di Bu); † רוּחַ (ה)קָדִים east wind Exodus 10:13 (twice in verse); Exodus 14:21 (J) Psalm 48:8; Jeremiah 18:17; Ezekiel 17:10; Ezekiel 19:12; Ezekiel 27:26; Jonah 4:8; † צָפוֺן ר׳ north wind Proverbs 25:23; † יָם ר׳ sea wind (west wind) Exodus 10:19 (J);. † הַיּוֺם ר׳ day wind, evening wind Genesis 3:8 (J; compare Songs 2:17; Songs 4:6); † אַרְבַּע רוּחוֺת four winds Jeremiah 49:36; Ezekiel 37:9 (quarters?) Daniel 8:8; Daniel 11:4 (figurative quarters; compare b), Zechariah 2:10; Zechariah 6:5; רוּחַ סְעְרָה storm wind Psalm 107:25; Psalm 148:8; Ezekiel 1:4 (סְעָרוֺת ר׳), Ezekiel 13:11, 13; רוּחַ סֹעָה rushing wind Psalm 55:9 (read possibly סערה Hup); בַּעְיָם רוּחוֺ Isaiah 11:15 (read בְּעֹצֶם ר׳, see עֲיָם, עֹצֶם), etc; wind personified: כַּנְפֵי רוּחַ 2 Samuel 22:11 = Psalm 18:11; Psalm 104:3, compare Hosea 4:19; Psalm 104:4. c. breath of air: שָׁאֲפוּ רוּחַ כַּתַּנִּים Jeremiah 14:6; רוּחַ לֹא יָבֹא בֵּינֵיהֶם Job 41:8. d. air, gas, from womb (dubious): כְּמוֺ יָלַדְנוּ רוּחַ Isaiah 26:18 (Di, e); רוּחֲכֶם אֵשׁ תֹּאכַלְכֶם (RV breath) Isaiah 33:11 (Du, 3c). †3. spirit, as that which breathes quickly in animation or agitation = temper, disposition (76 times; so, distinctively, as compared with H5315 נֶפֶשׁ and H3824 לֵבָב): d. impatience or patience: קֹצֶר רוּחַ Exodus 6:9 (P) impatience, hastiness of temper, compare (of י׳) Micah 2:7; קְצַררֿוּחַ Proverbs 14:29 (|| אַפַּיִם אֶרֶךְ); הֱצִיקַתְנִי רוּחַ בִּטְנִי Job 32:18 (Du breath; Di Bu divine spirit, compare Job 32:8); אִם מַדּוּעַ לֹאתִֿקְצַר רוּחִי Job 21:4; הֲקָצַר רוּחַ י׳ Micah 2:7; אֶרֶךְ ר׳ Ecclesiastes 7:8.

†4. spirit of the living, breathing being, dwelling in the בָּשָׂר of men and animals, || נֶפֶשׁ (25 times):

a. gift and creation of God: יֹצֵר רוּחַ אָדָם בְּקִרְבּוֺ Zechariah 12:1; בְּאַפִּי אֱלוֹהַּ רוּחַ Job 27:3, compare Isaiah 42:5. c. it is therefore God's spirit: Genesis 6:3 (J; see דִּין near the end). e. disembodied being (dubious, Di Du breath of wind): עַל־פָּנַי וְרוּחַ יַחֲלֹף Job 4:15.

†5. spirit as seat of emotion = נֶפֶשׁ :

a. desire (possibly 3g), Isaiah 26:9 (|| נֶפֶשׁ).

†9. spirit of God (94 times; not D or Jeremiah or any Deuteronomic writer; conception of its activity in inspiring prophecy probably discredited from abuse by false prophets, see נביא, נבא):

a. as inspiring ecstatic state of prophecy, Numbers 11:17, 25 (twice in verse); Numbers 11:26, 29 (J), 1 Samuel 10:6, 10 (compare 1 Samuel 10:5), 1 Samuel 19:20, 23; as inciting to deeds of frenzy, in the ecstatic state; hence conceived as אֱלֹהִים רָעָה ר׳ 1 Samuel 16:15 (twice in verse); 1 Samuel 16:16, = רָעָה מֵאֵת י׳ ר׳ 1 Samuel 16:14 = רָעָה א׳ צלח ר׳ 1 Samuel 18:10 (other narrative) = רָעָה י׳ ר׳ 1 Samuel 19:9; א׳ ר׳ 1 Samuel 16:23 = רוּחַ הָרָעָה 1 Samuel 16:23, compare הָרוּחַ 1 Kings 22:21 = שֶׁקֶר ר׳ 1 Kings 22:22; 1 Kings 22:23 2 Chronicles 18:20, 21, 22 = רוּחַ י׳ 1 Kings 22:24 2 Chronicles 18:23; compare also (in earlier prophets) אִישׁ הָרוּחַ, i.e. one possessed by the spirit in the ecstatic state, || הַנָּבִּיא Hosea 9:7; רוּחַ י׳ Micah 3:8 (|| בֹּחַ) is probably gloss (We Now); וְלֹא רוּחִי Isaiah 30:1; רוּחַ dealing with Ezek.: Ezekiel 2:2; Ezekiel 3:12, 14, 24; Ezekiel 8:3; Ezekiel 11:1, 5, 24 (Co gloss), Ezekiel 37:1; Ezekiel 43:5 (all implying ecstatic state of vision), compare Elijah 1 Kings 18:12; 2 Kings 2:16.

c. imparting warlike energy, and executive and administrative power:

Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon, Unabridged, Electronic Database.
Copyright © 2002, 2003, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc.
All rights reserved. Used by permission. BibleSoft.com

BLB Scripture Index of Brown-Driver-Briggs

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